You don't have to worry about the black sticky stuff, however just make sure there are no bumps when putting the foamy sheeting down on top of it.
Remove the carpet and put wood screws in your sub floor to fasten it down.
You should remove the old vinyl sub floor and add nothing less than 1/2 inch plywood for a stable floor.
There are many out there to choose from, each with different claims. If you are going to keep a natural finish, than a low luster urethane, applied in several coats, should be the ticket.
I will start with your kitchen. The options you have are ceramic tile, vinyl, laminate flooring, or hardwood. I would rule out hardwood right away. Laminate flooring is durable but it can scratch or dent with heavy traffic. Ceramic tile is probably the most durable flooring but it can be very hard and cold, plus there are sub floor issues that have to be considered. Vinyl today is still very good value mainly because they have made them a little darker and with less shine. My recommendation would be to go with a darker pattern mainly because it will hide things very well from underneath and on top. The trend is going darker not only in flooring but also wall paint and things like that. Now, for your living room. The most durable carpet for homes right now is Berber styles. These are made with low tight loops that will help keep its appearance longer. The tendency with carpet is that they mat and pack and ugly in the traffic areas, every carpet will do it but Berbers will prolong its appearance a little longer. As with vinyl, color is also important. There are so many choices for flooring these days it can be confusing trying to figure out what the best value is. You could have an estimator come to your house, measure what you and get a bottom line price with your materials labor and taxes on the different options. Then you can decide what's best for your home.
Be careful in taking up your carpet. Do not cut through the carpet, pad & scratch the wood floor. Most likely you will have a lot of padding staples in the floor and tackless strip around the edges. Be careful in removing the staples and tackless strip. You will know right away on how good your floors look after you remove the carpet and the pad. You could get away with a floor wax or a thin coat of a water base finish. It is possible that this can be done. If you have any more questions please call 630-325-4132.
Painting the floor in your situation right now is not a good idea it would be too messy. I would buy some more cheap tile to go over your old floor or a cheap piece of carpet and loose lay it over your floor. The paint and primer might be more expensive than the tile or carpet.
If you are looking for the same flooring for all those areas, I would probably suggest a good quality laminate flooring. It would be the one that would fit in all those areas. Hardwood would also fit except for the bathroom but the laminate is probably a little more durable. Laminate flooring are durable but not indestructible they can scratch or chip with abrasive traffic. There are many different kinds of laminate, many different qualities, and many different prices, which can make it quite confusing.I would suggest you visit a showroom and have someone walk you through all of your options, give you all the facts, and help you with your decision.
A constant humidity level of 35% to 45% must be maintained all year long. If you would like some information sent to you on general Hardwood information we would be happy to do so.
Are you replacing the cabinets? If not, then you may have to limit the thicknes of the flooring to service the dishwasher. If decreasing the height opening to the dishwasher is not an issue, then I prefer the look and feel of 3/4 plank flooring. 3/4 plank flooring can be purchased prefinished which eliminates the initial finishing and can be refinished in the future.